The personal archives of a scientist and inventor Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky (1857 - 1935) are in the custody of Archives of RAS. Personal archives of Tsiolkovsky (Fund 555) represent 5 inventories containing 1979 files on 31680 sheets of archive documents.
The information resource “Tsciolkovsky’ s archives” has been developed in Department of Insurance Documentary Fund of Archives of RAS and represents a database describing one of the sections of users fund on microfiches of Archives of RAS – personal archives of C. E. T.
The supplement has been developed for navigation and search of the materials for specialists concerned. Such fields as “file number”, “name of file”, “material type”, and “dates of document issue” serve as a guide to a variety of documents and assist in finding sections of interest and ordering copies of documents from fund keepers.
At present 100% of all documents of the archives have been digitized and accessible to users. It amounts to 31680 pages. At present the work on digitalization of documents from the personal archives of Tsciolkovsky Konstantin E. has been completed and all documents are available to users of the portal of the RAS.
The work on creation of the information resource “Tsciolkovsky’s archive” is fulfilled within the framework of the program “Integration of information resources of the Archives RAS to the Portal of RAS.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857 – 1935) is a Russian and Soviet scientist and an inventor in the field of aerodynamics, space rocket dynamics, theory of airplanes and dirigibles and a founder of modern cosmonautics.
He was born on September 5 (17), 1857 in the village of Izhevskoye, Ryazan Province, Russia, in the family of a forester. At the age of 10 he lost his hearing as a result of scarlet fever. After that he couldn’t attend school, and he never received any formal education. The knowledge and education he attained were achieved by himself. In 1873-1876 Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky lived in Moscow and studied physical and mathematical sciences according to the curriculum of the secondary and higher schools. After passing his exams, he received his Teacher’s Certificate and went to work as a teacher of math and geometry in Borovsk, Kaluga Province
At that time in 1880-1881 Tsiolkovsky wrote his work “Theory of gases” in which he stated the fundamentals of the kinetic theory of gases. His second work “Mechanics of animal organisms» received favorable comments by I.M. Sechenov and Tsiolkovsky was granted membership in Russian Physical and Chemical Society.
After 1884 the main works by Tsiolkovsky were devoted to the four important problems: scientific substantiation of metallic aerostat (dirigible), stream-line airplane, a train on air cushion and rockets for inter-planetary travels.
In 1892-1935 he lived and worked in Kaluga. His moving to Kaluga was the result of a teaching promotion but it was here in Kaluga that he became a well known scientist, and where he wrote and published his theories of space flight and inter-planetary travels. In 1892 his first scientific treatise about dirigibles “Metallic dirigible” was published. The work gives a scientific and technical substantiation of the construction of an all-metal dirigible. A progressive for that time project of the dirigible didn’t meet an approval and wasn’t supported financially.
Since 1896 Tsiolkovsky devoted himself to development of theories of reactive apparatus motion and suggested some schemes of space rockets and spaceships for inter-planetary travels.
The most important results were obtained by Tsiolkovsky in the theory of rocket motion (rocket dynamics). The ideas about their use for space exploration were suggested as early as in 1883 but the theory of reactive motion was proved mathematically in 1896. Only in 1903 he published a part of his work “Exploration of the Universe with Reaction Machines” where he demonstrated the possibility of rockets application for interplanetary communications.
After the October revolution of 1917 he devoted his studies to the theory of jet flights, developed the scheme of gas turbine engine.
In 1926 – 1927 Tsiolkovsky developed the theory of multi-stage rocket. He was the first to calculate the rocket motion in non-uniform field of gravitation (the Tsiolkovsky’s formula), considered the effect of the atmosphere on the rocket flight and calculated the fuel supply for reaching escape velocity.
In 1927 Tsiolkovsky published the theory and scheme of the train on air cushion.
In 1932 he developed the theory of jet flights in the stratosphere and schemes of airplanes with hypersonic velocities.
Tsiolkovsky is the founder of the theory of interplanetary communications. He was the first to study the theory of the design and construction of rockets, construction of large orbital habitats, considered medical and biological problems of space travels. Besides he suggested the use of gas rudder for the rocket flight control, the use of fuel components for cooling an outer sheath of the space rocket etc.
Tsiolkovsky is considered to be the father of cosmonautics and human space flight, and was a truly great thinker. His visionary ideas about the future of humanity in space were magnificent and far ahead of his time. He wrote and published over 500 works about space travel and related subjects.
Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, the father of cosmonautics, died in Kaluga at the age of 78 on September 19, 1935. He received an honoured State funeral from the Soviet government. He was buried in the old Kaluga Cemetry.