If these humans introduced the Upper Paleolithic culture  to other continents, then what was the culture like and  why did technologically and typologically dissimilar Upper Paleolithic industries  emerge in vastly remote regions of Eurasia nearly simultaneously between 50 and  40 ka BP? Moreover, these regions were separated by vast areas where Middle  Paleolithic cultures continued to exist. One of the main questions is: if H. sapiens  dispersed exclusively from Africa, then what were the relationships of humans of  the anatomically modern type with the autochthonous populations, which populated  these regions for many tens or even hundreds of thousands of years? What was the  material and spiritual culture of the modern humans which evolved in Africa and in  what way was this culture superior to the culture of predecessors? If anatomically  modern humans evolved 200–150 ka BP solely in East Africa, then why did they  start migrating to Eurasia only 80–60 ka BP?


Based on the variability in modern DNA, the proponents of the Resent Single  Origin hypothesis suggest that during 80–60 ka BP, a rapid population growth took  place in Africa, and Homo sapiens “split out” to populate Eurasia as a result of  a drastic population increase and lack of food supplies. 


With all the respect to the genetic research data, it is impossible to speak about  the possible demographic “explosion” during the Paleolithic having no valid archaeological  and anthropological grounds. Notably, during the Paleolithic with the  life span around 25 years, younger generations had to live without parents before  reaching maturity. That caused a high infant and juvenile death rate. Thus, there are  no reasons to speak about the demographic explosion. But even if we agree with  the idea that rapid population growth took place in Africa 80–60 ka BP, stimulating  a search for the new food resources and colonizing new territories, the question  remains: why did people take such long eastward migration routes, which brought  them to Australia? According to the archaeological data, anatomically modern  humans colonized Australia 50 or possibly 60 thousand years ago, while reaching  South Africa only 40 ka ago, Central and Western Africa less than 30 ka ago, and  North Africa about 50 ka ago. How can one explain that modern humans reached  Australia fi rst and then settled the rest of Africa?


Certain proponents of Out Of Africa hypothesis argued that anatomically modern  humans migrated from Africa to Australia. How can it be that H. sapiens left Africa  and for 5 - 10 thousand years managed to cover more than 10 thousand km having  left no traces of their activity along their route? As for the authochthonous populations  of South, East and Southeast Asia within the chronological range of 80 – 30 ka  BP no drastic changes or principal innovations have been observed in their culture, which might evidence intrusion of human groups with a different industry If the  autochthonous population was replaced by Homo sapiens, a complete substitution of  archaeological industry and culture would have taken place. However, no substantial  cultural changes are observed at Paleolithic sites in East Asia.


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